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“十三五”期间煤电机组节能降耗怎么做?

日期(qi):2015年7月(yue)24日 15:51文章来源:原创文章

    站在2015年年中节点,“十(shi)二(er)(er)五(wu)(wu)(wu)”即将收官,“十(shi)三(san)五(wu)(wu)(wu)”蓝图在绘。可以肯定的是,电(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)行业(ye)节能(neng)(neng)减排,不仅(jin)是“十(shi)二(er)(er)五(wu)(wu)(wu)”期(qi)间我(wo)(wo)国经济发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)的热点,还将继续成为“十(shi)三(san)五(wu)(wu)(wu)”我(wo)(wo)国电(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)的重中之重。“十(shi)二(er)(er)五(wu)(wu)(wu)”我(wo)(wo)国发(fa)电(dian)(dian)企业(ye)节能(neng)(neng)降耗(hao)(hao)取得哪些实践(jian)经验?“十(shi)三(san)五(wu)(wu)(wu)”节能(neng)(neng)降耗(hao)(hao)路线图如何(he)规划?针对上(shang)述问(wen)题,笔者对“十(shi)二(er)(er)五(wu)(wu)(wu)”期(qi)间煤电(dian)(dian)机组节能(neng)(neng)降耗(hao)(hao)情况进(jin)行了总结回顾(gu),并探讨(tao)了“十(shi)三(san)五(wu)(wu)(wu)”期(qi)间煤电(dian)(dian)节能(neng)(neng)降耗(hao)(hao)工作的长远构思,以供大家参考(kao)。

  “十二五”我国煤电机组节能降耗工作回顾

  “十二(er)五”期间,我国煤电机(ji)组节能减排(pai)工作主要从(cong)两(liang)个方(fang)面开展:一是对在役机(ji)组实施大(da)面积节能改(gai)造;二(er)是“上大(da)压(ya)小”调结构,新建机(ji)组采用高参(can)数大(da)容(rong)量的(de)(de)发电设备。通过(guo)实施上述“两(liang)手抓”措施,我国火电机(ji)组供电煤耗已由2010年(nian)的(de)(de)333克/千瓦(wa)时(shi)降(jiang)低到2014年(nian)的(de)(de)318克/千瓦(wa)时(shi),足足降(jiang)低了15克/千瓦(wa)时(shi),相(xiang)当于(yu)年(nian)节约(yue)6000万吨标(biao)准煤。在此过(guo)程中(zhong),我国火电行业技术进(jin)步也大(da)大(da)加快,成(cheng)为(wei)世界电力工业发展的(de)(de)亮点。

  总结(jie)在(zai)(zai)煤电(dian)机(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)节(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)降(jiang)(jiang)耗(hao)方面的(de)成(cheng)功案例,从单个电(dian)厂(chang)看(kan),上(shang)海(hai)外高(gao)(gao)桥第三发(fa)电(dian)厂(chang)(简(jian)称(cheng)外三电(dian)厂(chang))的(de)业绩可(ke)圈可(ke)点。外三电(dian)厂(chang)在(zai)(zai)节(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)降(jiang)(jiang)耗(hao)上(shang)做到了(le)(le)基建阶(jie)段与投(tou)产运行(xing)阶(jie)段并(bing)(bing)重:在(zai)(zai)基建阶(jie)段,高(gao)(gao)度重视设计选(xuan)型工作;在(zai)(zai)机(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)投(tou)产后,又采(cai)用一系列节(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)技术(shu)对设备和(he)系统进行(xing)改造。通(tong)过(guo)对主蒸汽(qi)、再热蒸汽(qi)管道弯头设计优化,降(jiang)(jiang)低了(le)(le)系统阻力;采(cai)用100%汽(qi)动(dong)泵(beng)技术(shu),前置泵(beng)与汽(qi)动(dong)给水(shui)(shui)泵(beng)同轴,提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)了(le)(le)给水(shui)(shui)泵(beng)组(zu)(zu)效率;采(cai)用零(ling)号(hao)高(gao)(gao)加(jia),在(zai)(zai)低负(fu)荷(he)下提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)给水(shui)(shui)温(wen)(wen)度和(he)SCR入口(kou)烟气(qi)温(wen)(wen)度,保(bao)证了(le)(le)SCR正常投(tou)运,并(bing)(bing)降(jiang)(jiang)低了(le)(le)机(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)耗(hao)指标(biao);通(tong)过(guo)加(jia)装暖风(feng)(feng)器,并(bing)(bing)采(cai)用六抽汽(qi)源供汽(qi),提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)了(le)(le)二次风(feng)(feng)温(wen)(wen)度及空(kong)气(qi)预热器低温(wen)(wen)原件的(de)温(wen)(wen)度,有效预防(fang)了(le)(le)空(kong)气(qi)预热器堵灰和(he)腐(fu)蚀(shi),并(bing)(bing)结(jie)合(he)低压省煤器的(de)应用,降(jiang)(jiang)低了(le)(le)机(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)耗(hao)指标(biao);采(cai)用凝结(jie)水(shui)(shui)调频技术(shu),减少了(le)(le)部分(fen)负(fu)荷(he)下调节(jie)汽(qi)门节(jie)流损失,提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)了(le)(le)机(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)变负(fu)荷(he)相(xiang)应速度。目前,外三电(dian)厂(chang)机(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)供电(dian)煤耗(hao)达(da)到全世界最低,成(cheng)为(wei)国内(nei)燃煤机(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)节(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)降(jiang)(jiang)耗(hao)的(de)典范之(zhi)一。

  目前,全国6000千瓦(wa)及以上电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂在役(yi)火电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)装机(ji)9.4亿(yi)千瓦(wa),占全国总装机(ji)的(de)(de)69%,因(yin)此,对在役(yi)煤(mei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)组(zu)采用什(shen)么(me)成(cheng)熟、可靠和(he)技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)经(jing)(jing)济合(he)理(li)的(de)(de)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)环(huan)保技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu),已成(cheng)为各发电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)企(qi)业面临(lin)的(de)(de)重要(yao)课题。华能(neng)(neng)(neng)玉环(huan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)厂3号(hao)机(ji)组(zu)成(cheng)功(gong)实(shi)施(shi)一(yi)揽子节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)环(huan)保技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao),成(cheng)为我国发电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)企(qi)业在煤(mei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)降(jiang)耗(hao)领域攻(gong)坚克难(nan)、不懈努力的(de)(de)一(yi)个缩影。玉环(huan)3号(hao)机(ji)组(zu)采取(qu)的(de)(de)主要(yao)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)降(jiang)耗(hao)措(cuo)施(shi)包括:空(kong)气预(yu)热器(qi)整体改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)、汽(qi)(qi)动联(lian)合(he)引风机(ji)技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)、外(wai)置(zhi)式蒸汽(qi)(qi)冷却器(qi)、凝结水(shui)复合(he)调(diao)频(pin)技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)、捞渣机(ji)一(yi)步上仓改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)、局部保温改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)、锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)照明改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)、阀门泄漏治(zhi)理(li)、锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)燃(ran)(ran)烧优化调(diao)整、低氮燃(ran)(ran)烧器(qi)改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)、脱(tuo)硝系(xi)统增(zeng)容(rong)改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)除尘器(qi)低低温改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)及高(gao)频(pin)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)、脱(tuo)硫系(xi)统增(zeng)容(rong)改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)、烟尘协同(tong)治(zhi)理(li)等(deng),在环(huan)保增(zeng)容(rong)改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)条件下(xia),改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)(zao)后机(ji)组(zu)平(ping)均供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)煤(mei)耗(hao)降(jiang)到282g/kWh,厂用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)率降(jiang)至2.9%。经(jing)(jing)浙江省(sheng)环(huan)境监测总站监测,机(ji)组(zu)在满负荷工况下(xia),烟尘≤1.43mg/m3;二(er)氧(yang)化硫≤15.7mg/m3;氮氧(yang)化物(wu)≤22.4mg/m3,烟气污染物(wu)排放(fang)达到燃(ran)(ran)气轮机(ji)组(zu)的(de)(de)排放(fang)标准(zhun)。

  总(zong)结我国(guo)煤(mei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)降(jiang)耗(hao)的(de)(de)成(cheng)功(gong)案例,从集团(tuan)整(zheng)(zheng)体(ti)看,华能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)集团(tuan)已走出(chu)一条(tiao)卓有成(cheng)效的(de)(de)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)减(jian)排(pai)(pai)(pai)之(zhi)路。一是(shi)(shi)规划(hua)(hua)标(biao)准为龙头。华能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)不断(duan)(duan)吸收国(guo)内外(wai)先进(jin)(jin)的(de)(de)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)减(jian)排(pai)(pai)(pai)技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)和(he)(he)(he)经验,在国(guo)内电(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)集团(tuan)中率先制订(ding)了(le)(le)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)环(huan)保(bao)企业(ye)规划(hua)(hua)和(he)(he)(he)燃煤(mei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)优秀节(jie)(jie)约环(huan)保(bao)型(xing)企业(ye)标(biao)准,为火电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)减(jian)排(pai)(pai)(pai)确立了(le)(le)指导(dao)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)针、目(mu)标(biao)和(he)(he)(he)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)向。二是(shi)(shi)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)诊断(duan)(duan)“开方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)子”。华能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)对(dui)早期的(de)(de)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)诊断(duan)(duan)技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)经验总(zong)结和(he)(he)(he)理论提(ti)(ti)升,创新(xin)性(xing)地形成(cheng)了(le)(le)一套(tao)规范、统(tong)(tong)一的(de)(de)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)诊断(duan)(duan)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)法(fa)和(he)(he)(he)程序,并(bing)通过理论分析和(he)(he)(he)总(zong)结大量机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)实(shi)际(ji)运行(xing)(xing)(xing)统(tong)(tong)计(ji)(ji)(ji)规律,制定(ding)(ding)了(le)(le)科(ke)学的(de)(de)计(ji)(ji)(ji)算方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)法(fa)。该方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)法(fa)根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)设(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)数(shu)据、主辅(fu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)试验结果、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)运行(xing)(xing)(xing)参数(shu)和(he)(he)(he)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)耗(hao)统(tong)(tong)计(ji)(ji)(ji)指标(biao),实(shi)现了(le)(le)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)发电(dian)(dian)(dian)煤(mei)耗(hao)反平(ping)(ping)衡计(ji)(ji)(ji)算与(yu)(yu)(yu)正(zheng)平(ping)(ping)衡统(tong)(tong)计(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)统(tong)(tong)一,提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)了(le)(le)燃煤(mei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)降(jiang)耗(hao)技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping),推动了(le)(le)行(xing)(xing)(xing)业(ye)技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)进(jin)(jin)步(bu)。2011年(nian)至2014年(nian)这4年(nian)期间,华能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)共有300台(次)煤(mei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)实(shi)施了(le)(le)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)诊断(duan)(duan),找(zhao)出(chu)了(le)(le)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)存(cun)在的(de)(de)共性(xing)问题,提(ti)(ti)出(chu)并(bing)实(shi)施了(le)(le)系统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)解决(jue)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)法(fa)。三是(shi)(shi)“一厂(chang)一策”定(ding)(ding)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)案。华能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)在节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)诊断(duan)(duan)基础上(shang),提(ti)(ti)出(chu)了(le)(le)既解决(jue)共性(xing)问题又符合(he)各(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)厂(chang)实(shi)际(ji)情况(kuang)的(de)(de)一体(ti)化(hua)(hua)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)案,主要是(shi)(shi):结合(he)各(ge)厂(chang)主辅(fu)设(she)(she)备设(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)特(te)点、设(she)(she)备性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)、运行(xing)(xing)(xing)状况(kuang)和(he)(he)(he)存(cun)在问题,采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)系统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)思维方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)式,整(zheng)(zheng)体(ti)的(de)(de)设(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)理念,开展节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)新(xin)技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)一体(ti)化(hua)(hua)集成(cheng)应(ying)用(yong)(yong)(yong)研究与(yu)(yu)(yu)示范。采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)主要技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)包括:汽轮机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)通流改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)、锅炉受热(re)面调(diao)整(zheng)(zheng)、分级(ji)省(sheng)煤(mei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)应(ying)用(yong)(yong)(yong)、空冷岛增容改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)动泵改(gai)(gai)为汽动泵、汽轮机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)多变(bian)量协同控(kong)制技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)、引风机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)与(yu)(yu)(yu)增压(ya)(ya)风机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)合(he)并(bing)、烟(yan)道优化(hua)(hua)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)除尘器(qi)(qi)(qi)高(gao)(gao)频电(dian)(dian)(dian)源改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)、罗茨真空泵节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)、低(di)压(ya)(ya)省(sheng)煤(mei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)与(yu)(yu)(yu)烟(yan)气(qi)(qi)余(yu)热(re)供暖风器(qi)(qi)(qi)联(lian)合(he)系统(tong)(tong)、两级(ji)低(di)压(ya)(ya)省(sheng)煤(mei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)与(yu)(yu)(yu)烟(yan)气(qi)(qi)余(yu)热(re)供暖风器(qi)(qi)(qi)联(lian)合(he)系统(tong)(tong)、外(wai)置式蒸汽冷却(que)器(qi)(qi)(qi)与(yu)(yu)(yu)附加高(gao)(gao)加联(lian)合(he)系统(tong)(tong)、空气(qi)(qi)预热(re)器(qi)(qi)(qi)局部改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)、凝结水(shui)(shui)复合(he)调(diao)频技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)、再(zai)热(re)器(qi)(qi)(qi)清(qing)洗技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)、吹灰(hui)汽源改(gai)(gai)造(zao)(zao)、汽轮机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及热(re)力(li)(li)疏水(shui)(shui)系统(tong)(tong)优化(hua)(hua),等等。四是(shi)(shi)抓好新(xin)建机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)的(de)(de)选型(xing)和(he)(he)(he)设(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)优化(hua)(hua)。华能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)合(he)理提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)蒸汽参数(shu)、提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)给水(shui)(shui)温度、降(jiang)低(di)汽轮机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)排(pai)(pai)(pai)汽压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li),采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)烟(yan)气(qi)(qi)余(yu)热(re)利用(yong)(yong)(yong)系统(tong)(tong)(低(di)压(ya)(ya)省(sheng)煤(mei)器(qi)(qi)(qi))、外(wai)置式蒸汽冷却(que)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、普遍采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)给水(shui)(shui)泵与(yu)(yu)(yu)前置泵同轴技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)、泵和(he)(he)(he)风机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)变(bian)频或双速技(ji)(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)等,提(ti)(ti)高(gao)(gao)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)循环(huan)效率,降(jiang)低(di)厂(chang)用(yong)(yong)(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)率。此外(wai),华能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)还采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)各(ge)种行(xing)(xing)(xing)之(zhi)有效的(de)(de)节(jie)(jie)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)管理措施,如加强对(dui)标(biao)管理、开展小指标(biao)竞赛(sai)等手段,进(jin)(jin)一步(bu)促进(jin)(jin)了(le)(le)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)(zu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)耗(hao)指标(biao)的(de)(de)有效降(jiang)低(di)。截至2014年(nian)底,华能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)发电(dian)(dian)(dian)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)总(zong)容量15149万(wan)千(qian)瓦,完(wan)成(cheng)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)煤(mei)耗(hao)310克/千(qian)瓦时,厂(chang)用(yong)(yong)(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)率4.4%。

  “十三五”期间煤电机组节能降耗怎么做

  根据中电(dian)(dian)(dian)联数(shu)据,截至2014年(nian)底,我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)发电(dian)(dian)(dian)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)(liang)达到(dao)13.60亿千(qian)瓦,连(lian)续第二年(nian)位居(ju)世界第一,其中,火电(dian)(dian)(dian)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)9.16亿千(qian)瓦(含煤(mei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)8.25亿千(qian)瓦、气(qi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)0.56亿千(qian)瓦),占(zhan)全(quan)部装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的67.4%。预(yu)计(ji)“十三(san)五”期间,我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)发电(dian)(dian)(dian)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)(liang)每年(nian)仍将有(you)一定的增长。预(yu)计(ji)到(dao)2030年(nian),我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)煤(mei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)(liang)约占(zhan)总装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的50%。按照国(guo)(guo)(guo)家发改委(wei)、环保部和(he)国(guo)(guo)(guo)家能源局(ju)下发的《煤(mei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)节能减排升级与(yu)改造(zao)行动(dong)计(ji)划(2014-2020年(nian))》,到(dao)2020年(nian),我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)现役(yi)燃(ran)煤(mei)发电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)改造(zao)后的平均(jun)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)煤(mei)耗(hao)要(yao)低于310克(ke)/千(qian)瓦时。因(yin)此,“十三(san)五”期间在役(yi)煤(mei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)节能改造(zao)仍然是(shi)重头戏(xi)。

  由于各(ge)个电厂(chang)的机组(zu)建设时期不(bu)尽相(xiang)同、机组(zu)类型及其系(xi)统(tong)不(bu)尽相(xiang)同、电厂(chang)所处(chu)的地(di)域(yu)环境不(bu)尽相(xiang)同,机组(zu)情(qing)况存(cun)在共性(xing)(xing),也存(cun)在个性(xing)(xing)问(wen)题,因此,一方面要(yao)加(jia)强可(ke)行的共性(xing)(xing)节能(neng)技(ji)术推广应用,另(ling)一方面要(yao)强调“一厂(chang)一策”,设计综合(he)节能(neng)和环保、节能(neng)和安全等一体(ti)化实施方案,既不(bu)能(neng)从(cong)别处(chu)照搬照抄,又(you)要(yao)防止盲目局部(bu)改造(zao)造(zao)成(cheng)投(tou)资浪(lang)费(fei),从(cong)而达到更好的节能(neng)效果。

  面对“十(shi)(shi)三五(wu)(wu)”节能(neng)(neng)降耗的(de)新要(yao)求,目前已经初步研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)成功和(he)正在(zai)开展研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)的(de)技(ji)术(shu)(shu),要(yao)加快(kuai)研(yan)(yan)发(fa)和(he)推广(guang)应用(yong),以(yi)尽快(kuai)发(fa)挥预(yu)期作用(yong)。“十(shi)(shi)二五(wu)(wu)”末的(de)最新技(ji)术(shu)(shu),如已经投运的(de)华能(neng)(neng)长兴电厂再(zai)热(re)蒸(zheng)汽温(wen)度620℃超(chao)(chao)(chao)超(chao)(chao)(chao)临界技(ji)术(shu)(shu)、华能(neng)(neng)安源电厂660MW超(chao)(chao)(chao)超(chao)(chao)(chao)临界二次(ci)再(zai)热(re)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)等,应进(jin)一步深化(hua)研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu),加大推广(guang)应用(yong)力度,使新建(jian)机(ji)组(zu)站在(zai)新的(de)起点上。正在(zai)研(yan)(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)并取得(de)初步成果(guo)的(de)700℃超(chao)(chao)(chao)超(chao)(chao)(chao)临界机(ji)组(zu)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)(以(yi)材料技(ji)术(shu)(shu)为核心(xin)),要(yao)争(zheng)取早日(ri)进(jin)入(ru)工程示范(fan)阶段。还要(yao)紧密结(jie)合需求侧节能(neng)(neng)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)应用(yong),大力实(shi)施机(ji)组(zu)热(re)电联(lian)产、冷(leng)热(re)电联(lian)产,这也(ye)是节能(neng)(neng)的(de)好做法。

  在近期和(he)(he)今后(hou)一段时间内(nei),煤电(dian)机(ji)组(zu)新技术(shu)的(de)研发主要有(you)四个方向:一是电(dian)厂(chang)内(nei)部的(de)智能(neng)化(hua)、深(shen)度优(you)化(hua);二(er)是煤炭分级梯(ti)级利用技术(shu);三是“互联(lian)网+”智慧能(neng)源时代的(de)发电(dian)、调度、用电(dian)的(de)联(lian)合优(you)化(hua);四是利用新型介(jie)质(如二(er)氧化(hua)碳)热力循环的(de)全(quan)新发电(dian)技术(shu)。在节能(neng)降(jiang)耗的(de)道路上(shang),还有(you)许多新技术(shu)、新工艺需要开发和(he)(he)不(bu)断地升级优(you)化(hua),并加以示范和(he)(he)付(fu)诸实(shi)践应用,以产(chan)生(sheng)实(shi)实(shi)在在的(de)经济(ji)效(xiao)益(yi)和(he)(he)社(she)会效(xiao)益(yi)。